• Inspection Method Testing Carried out on 12 People
  • Pedaling Efficiency Inspection

Pedaling Efficiency Inspection


Inspection Method: Testing Carried out on 12 People

Temporary load and lactic acid levels were tested in 12 people on fixed rollers with varying endurance training abilities (LT power ranging between low, medium and high), competition experience (ranging from beginners, people with less than one year's experience, to people with more than three years' experience), and competition level (general, school competition, and national representative level)

Inspection Method

1) Load was increased by 40w at a time and then maintained for 3 minutes. This was repeated until exhaustion.
2) Maintaining a cadence of between 87 and 93 RPM.
3) Measuring each subject's lactate threshold ("LT"), the intensity at which exercise becomes hard.

Maintained for
3 minutes
Increasing power level
by 40w at a time
Ending when power cannot
be increased further
Power HR Cadence

What is lactate threshold ("LT")?

The level of intensity where continued exercise begins to feel hard.

The approximate intensity where changes in blood lactic acid concentration become large is the LT (in this case, baseline +1 mmol/l concentration is defined as the LT.) By measuring this, an athlete's endurance ability can be measured in watts. LT is the most fundamental indicator of endurance potential.

LT between 270W and 290W
Felt as "fairly hard" or "hard"

When the load is low, the power from the oxidative metabolism is central.

As the load increases, this is supplemented by the secondary engine, glycosis. This leads to increased lactic acid production and an increase in lactic acid concentration in the blood.

LT Power Value

How do you determine the LT Power Value?

Rating of Perceived Exertion ("RPE")

During exercise, the intensity felt by the participant is expressed by a number between 13 and 15. This often corresponds to the LT.
Using RPE, the LT can be easily determined.

19 Extremely hard
17 Very hard
LT intensities from "fairly hard" to "hard" 15 Hard
13 Fairly hard
11 Light
9 Very light
7 Extremely light

Pedaling Efficiency Inspection

Change in Left and Right Pedaling Efficiency[%] with Increased Load

Result 1

Regardless of competition level, pedaling efficiency tends to increase with load.

Athlete A (High competition level)

Left power Right power

Athlete B (Low competition level)

Left power Right power

Result 2

At the LT where pedaling becomes hard, pedaling efficiency reaches its maximum.

Athlete A

Athlete B

Result 3

Pedaling efficiency tends to increase with competition experience.

Athlete A (Many years of experience)

Left power Right power

Athlete B (Little experience)

Left power Right power

Result 4

From measurements up until now, pedaling efficiency increases to a maximum of 78%.

Display graph is the original analysis data from this study. The Cyclo-Sphere screen is different. Additionally, the blood lactic acid concentration data is original.


  1. Pedaling efficiency increases at higher intensity.
  2. Pedaling efficiency when intensity becomes "hard" is important.
  3. Pedaling efficiency varies by individual (with skill).
  4. Pedaling efficiency can be increased to nearly 80%.
  5. Increasing pedaling efficiency is not identified as a goal.It is important to increase this naturally through training.